Khawaja’s nerves – Importance of these communicating nerves in facial surgery


Almighty God, has created mankind with variable facial features. Face of one human being is different from the other, and they rarely match exactly, except, where the creator created the identical twins. This fact is known to everybody. But man continues to explore the hidden truth inside the face. As has been believed for centuries, the human anatomical patterns in the face are constant, is no longer true. The only thing constant about facial anatomy is its extreme variability. Variable anatomical patterns have been highlighted by the author in case of SMAFS (Superficial Musculo Aponeurotic Fatty System ), Facial nerve and its branches (Temporal and Marginal Mandibular Nerves). 15 This important chapter, leads us to a new era in facial anatomy and surgery; it reflects the existence and importance of communicating nerves, between facial nerve branches, and sensory nerves, mostly with trigeminal, and also other nerves. 6 The senior author has named these communications as Khawaja s Nerves.

Por: Hassan Abbas Khawaja, MD , Melvin A. Shiffman, MD, JD , Enrique Hernández-Pérez, MD, José Enrique Hernández-Pérez, MD, Mauricio Hernández-Pérez, MD